Conforti, Joseph. The numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Reformed. Women made up a large part of these voluntary societies. , Changing demographics of gender also affected religious doctrine. While the movement unified the colonies and boosted church growth, experts say it also caused division among those who supported it and those who rejected it. It gave them people agency in their own religious lives that Calvinism had denied them. "The Communion Sermons of James Mcgready: Sacramental Theology and Scots-Irish Piety on the Kentucky Frontier", Meyer, Neil. Kentucky was also influenced by a … Varel, David A. It greatly increased the number of Christians both in New England and on the frontier. Early Baptist congregations were formed by slaves and free African Americans in South Carolina and Virginia. "The Invention of the Great Awakening, 1795–1842". The second Great Awakening is significant because it changed the character of American religion. What were the causes and effects of the Second Great Awakening? passed laws requiring them always to have a white man present at their worship meetings. Long, Kimberly Bracken. Mathews, Donald G. "The Second Great Awakening as an organizing process, 1780–1830: An hypothesis". Church membership and religious activity gave women peer support and place for meaningful activity outside the home, providing many women with communal identity and shared experiences. Baptists and Methodist revivals were successful in some parts of the Tidewater South, where an increasing number of common planters, plain folk, and slaves were converted. Lyman Beecher was part of the reform movement of the Second Great Awakening.  As the most effective form of evangelizing during this period, revival meetings cut across geographical boundaries. , The Methodist circuit riders and local Baptist preachers made enormous gains in increasing church membership. , The Advent Movement emerged in the 1830s and 1840s in North America, and was preached by ministers such as William Miller, whose followers became known as Millerites. Historians named the Second Great Awakening in the context of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1750s and of the Third Great Awakening of the late 1850s to early 1900s. Johnson, Charles A. The Second Great Awakening also brought significant changes to American culture. The name refers to the fact that this period followed the First Great Awakening, which was a period of … The 2 nd Great Awakening was a religious revival that took place after the American Revolution between 1790 and 1840 in an effort to restore a simpler form of Christianity. Shiels, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening in Connecticut: Critique of the Traditional Interpretation". The camp meeting was a religious service of several days' length with preachers. During this revival, meetings were held in small towns and large cities throughout the country, and the unique frontier institution known as the camp meeting began. Conversions and congregations started with the First Great Awakening, resulting in Baptist and Methodist preachers being authorized among slaves and free African Americans more than a decade before 1800. In the West, the Second Great Awakening began with James McGready (1762?–1817).  The movement quickly spread throughout Kentucky, Indiana, Tennessee, and southern Ohio, as well as other regions of the United States and Canada. During the period of revival, mothers were seen as the moral and spiritual foundation of the family, and were thus tasked with instructing children in matters of religion and ethics. 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