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He was four times candidate for the Presidency—unsuccessfully in 1952, 1958, 1964, and finally successfully in 1970. Inaugurated on November 3, 1970, Allende began to restructure Chilean society along socialist lines while retaining the democratic form of government and respecting civil liberties and the due process of law. Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was a 17th century nun, self-taught scholar and acclaimed writer of the Latin American colonial period and the Hispanic Baroque. Allende, born into an upper-middle-class family, received his medical degree in 1932 from the University of Chile, where he was a Marxist activist. Every step of the way, they showed that a “popular front” based on the unity of working-class forces with “progressive” capitalists could pave the road for a bloody defeat. The Socialist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Socialista de Chile, or PS) is a political party within the centre-left Nueva Mayoría. He was the son of Salvador Allende Castro and Laura Gossens Uribe. He participated in the founding (1933) of Chile’s Socialist Party. He was one of the founders of the Socialist Party of Chile and in 1938 became a minister of health. Again with the same support he was decisively defeated (1964) by the Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei. For his successful 1970 campaign Allende ran as the candidate of Popular Unity, a bloc of Socialists, Communists, Radicals, and some dissident Christian Democrats, leading in a three-sided race with 36.3 percent of the vote. Salvador Allende Gossens, a Marxist activist, became the founding member of Chile’s Socialist Party in 1933. Thus, Chile had a paradoxical situation: socialists, traditionally suffering from the lack of a truly revolutionary strategy, those socialists, the party which was nominated Salvador Allende, since 1972 they have openly advocated more radical and decisive measures to destroy the bourgeois state, to destroy the influence of the bourgeoisie, preparation for the inevitable armed confrontation with the … Allende led the Popular Unity coalition, which was composed of the two largest parties, the Communist Party and the Socialist Party, as well as smaller leftist parties. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. They acted as … Allende was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1937, and eventually served as minister of health. Allende, representing a coalition of Marxist parties, came to power in 1970 after narrowly beating his closest opponent with 36.3 percent of the vote. They would avoid direct conflict with small- and medium-sized capitalists in order to first take hold of the “commanding heights” of the economy. When Allende took office, Chile was enduring a severe economic crisis. Early Life Edit. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Omissions? Five decades after the election of Allende’s Unidad Popular government, Patricia Espejo Brain, Salvador Allende’s private secretary, publishes her memoirs. Allende was elected to the Chilean Senate four times from 1945 to 1969. By 1972 Chile was suffering from stagnant production, decreased exports and private-sector investment, exhausted financial reserves, widespread strikes, rising inflation, food shortages, and domestic unrest. In 1933 Allende helped to found the Chilean Socialist Party, a Marxist organization that was opposed to the Soviet Union influenced Communist Party. The CIA later acknowledged its support of the political opposition and advance knowledge of the coup, though it continues to deny any direct involvement in the event itself. He was married to Marie Antoinette and was executed for treason by guillotine in 1793. Allende’s inability to control his own radical left-wing supporters further incurred the hostility of the middle class. During a concerted attack on the presidential palace, Allende died, and the manner of his death became a subject of controversy. Portia de Rossi, wife of Ellen DeGeneres, is known for playing the cold and calculating Nelle Porter on Ally McBeal and Lindsay Bluth-Funke on Arrested Development. Poor economic planning and a growing dysfunctional relationship between Allende and Congress deepened the country's economic difficulty. The Socialist Party in Zambia herewith condemns the on-going coup attempt against the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela. He was a senator from 1945 until 1969 and was President of the Chilean Senate from 1966 until 1969. In 1945, he became a senator. One of the first things they did was decorate the walls with a mural. He qualified as a medical doctor in 1932 but from his student days he was also active in politics, helping to found ChileÕs Socialist Party in the same year as his graduation. Read More In 1990 his body was exhumed from an unmarked grave and given a formal public burial in Santiago. In 1933, Allende was one of the founders of the Chilean Socialist Party, which was based on Marxist principles but was intended to be specifically Chilean rather than broadly international in its orientation and parliamentary rather than revolutionary in its politics. Allende ran for the presidency for the first time in 1952 but was temporarily expelled from the Socialist Party for accepting the support of the outlawed Communists; he placed last in a four-man race. In 1940, he married Hortensia Bussi, with whom he had three daughters, Carmen Paz, Isabel and Beatriz. Allende attended high school at the Liceo Eduardo de la Barra in Valparaíso and medical school at the University of Chile, graduating with a medical degree in 1933. He qualified as a doctor in 1932 and helped found the Socialist Party of Chile a year later, serving as its general secretary from 1943 to 1970. On the 50 th anniversary of the history-changing election of Salvador Allende in Chile, the National Security Archive today posted a selection of previously declassified documents recording the reaction of U.S. officials to the first democratic election of a Socialist leader … In an attempt to redistribute incomes, he authorized large wage increases and froze prices. Early on, he declared his commitment to Marxism and his desire to promote a socialist Chile. So I assume John you will be able to show where you ever wrote anything critical of Phillip Agee for revealing the names of hundreds of CIA covert operatives around the world? Allende also printed large amounts of unsupported currency to erase the fiscal deficit created by the government’s purchase of basic industries. Salvador Allende. During this time, he helped implement such social reforms as higher pensions, a free school lunch program and safety laws for factory workers. He won 48.0% in the first round of voting and was elected with 51.3% in the second round. Politics. Louis XVI was the last king of France (1774–92) in the line of Bourbon monarchs preceding the French Revolution of 1789. Salvador Allende was Chile's first socialist president who embarked on an agenda of improving the living conditions of poor people and peasants. Allende won the first of his four elections to the Senate in 1945. In his youth, Allende was influenced by an anarchist shoemaker, Juan De Marchi, who promoted revolution and radical politics. Salvador Allende, in full Salvador Allende Gossens, (born June 26, 1908, Valparaíso, Chile—died September 11, 1973, Santiago), Chile’s first socialist president. The Socialist Workers Party and its international cothinkers had fundamental criticisms of the Popular Unity (Unidad Popular, UP) government led by Salvador Allende. There were conflicting reports regarding whether Allende committed suicide or was killed by soldiers storming the palace after it was attacked by the Chilean Air Force. In Salvador Allende …the founding (1933) of Chile’s Socialist Party. His government, however, was overthrown on September 11, 1973, by a military coup led by Augusto Pinochet. The Freedom Archives contains over 10,000 hours of audio and video tapes. He participated in the founding (1933) of Chile’s Socialist Party. It was from the beginning a party which stated in its program its commitment to Marxism: “The Party adheres to Marxism as the method for interpreting reality … In foreign affairs, he established relations with China and Cuba. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The son of Salvador Allende Castro and Doña Laura Gossens Uribe, he was part of an upper-middle-class family that had a long tradition in progressive politics. Allende won the first of his four elections to the Senate in 1945. He ran again in 1958—with Socialist backing, as well as the support of the then-legal Communists—and was a close second to the Conservative-Liberal candidate, Jorge Alessandri. He expropriated the U.S.-owned copper companies in Chile without compensation, an act which set him seriously at odds with the U.S. government and weakened foreign investors’ confidence in his government. Updates? His government also took steps to purchase several important privately owned mining and manufacturing sectors and to take over large agricultural estates for use by peasant cooperatives. After receiving his medical degree in 1932, he co-founded Chile's Socialist Party. …proposing as its presidential candidate. He … We strive for accuracy and fairness. As a medical student he became involved in radical politics and he was arrested several times while at university. Allende was born in 1908 in Valparaíso. Finally, in September 1970, he won a presidential race. After election to the Chamber of Deputies in 1937, he served (1939–42) as minister of health in the liberal leftist coalition of President Pedro Aguirre Cerda. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Pablo Neruda was a Nobel Prize–winning Chilean poet who was once called "the greatest poet of the 20th century in any language.". Allende was born in Valparaiso and involved in politics while a medical student at the University of Chile in 1926. International lines of credit from the United States and western Europe had completely dried up. He also co-founded the Socialist Party of Chile in Valparaíso and became its leader. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! The results confirmed that he had committed suicide. Salvador Allende, in full Salvador Allende Gossens, (born June 26, 1908, Valparaíso, Chile—died September 11, 1973, Santiago), Chile’s first socialist president. During this time, Allende also ran for president unsuccessfully in 1952, 1958 and 1964, before finally winning in 1970. These recordings date from the late-60s to the mid-90s and chronicle the progressive history of the Bay Area, the United States, and international solidarity movements. Louis XVII was recognized by royalists as the King of France from 1793, when he was 8, until his death in 1795. Unemployment was high and an estimated half of the country's children under the age of 15 were suffering from malnutrition. As the 1970 presidential election approached, Frei remained personally popular, but his party's strength ebbed. Because he lacked a popular majority, however, his election had to be confirmed by Congress, in which there was strong opposition from the right. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies, a house of the … © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Military officials claimed that he had committed suicide, while others believed that he had been killed and that an apparent suicide had been staged. What he did was of course a hundred-fold worse than whoever revealed Plams status, given the … The coup d'etat by General Augusto Pinochet in Chile on September 11, 1973 transformed the history of socialism. In addition to nationalizing many large-scale industries, Allende expropriated American-owned copper industries without compensation. It was 1952 and Salvador Allende was facing his first presidential campaign with few resources. Interview by Tom Raeside. During the 1950s and 60s, he unsuccessfully ran for president several times. His regime was supported by working-class constituencies, but was opposed in covert actions by U.S. President Richard Nixon. After election to the Chamber of Deputies in 1937, he served (1939–42) as minister of health in the liberal leftist coalition of President Pedro Aguirre Cerda. Corrections? Nevertheless, it was confirmed on October 24, 1970, after he had guaranteed support to 10 libertarian constitutional amendments demanded by the Christian Democrats. Henry IV granted religious freedom to Protestants by issuing the Edict of Nantes during his reign as king of France, from 1589 to 1610. Salvador Allende Gossens was born in Valparaiso, Chile on 26 June 1908, the son of wealthy parents. From the outset, parts of the opposition and state apparatus refused to accept his government, centered on the Socialist and Communist Parties, and Allende faced a violent, CIA-backed campaign of subversion. Allende was a member of the Socialist Party of Chile. Salvador Isabelino del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús Allende Gossens was born on July 26, 1908, in Valparaíso, Chile. He earned a Medical Degree at that university in 1932, chosing to become a pediatrician. As responsible of the PSI foreign policy he supported, also financially, some socialist parties banned by the dictatorships of their respective countries, including the Spanish Socialist Workers Party, the Panhellenic Socialist Movement and the Chilean Socialist Party of Salvador Allende, of whom Craxi was a personal friend. Salvador Allende was born in Valparaiso, Chile, in 1903. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Salvador-Allende, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Salvador Allende, Salvador Allende - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). French philosopher Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de la Brède et de Montesquieu, was a highly influential political thinker during the Age of Enlightenment. She was also a staunch advocate for women's rights. It was 1952 and Salvador Allende was facing his first presidential campaign with few resources. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 1933, Allende helped organize the Socialist Party of Chile (PSC). This month marks fifty years since Popular Unity’s Salvador Allende was elected president of Chile. Allende, born into an upper-middle-class family, received his medical degree in 1932 from the University of Chile, where he was a Marxist activist. Almost a thousand days before, Salvador Allende and the Popular Unity coalition had taken office promising a “Chilean Road to Socialism” based on democratic principles. UP's leader, Salvador Allende, was a Marxist who co-founded Chile's Socialist Party. Allende immediately implemented his socialist agenda, increasing wages and freezing prices while taking steps to reform the education system, health care and government administration. The Chilean Socialist Party was founded in 1933 by Salvador Allende, amongst others. Allende’s election represented a victory for workers and for the working class — the non-elite, popular … Twenty-seven years later, Ricardo Lagos Escobar represented the Socialist Party in the 1999 presidential elections. In the Senate, Allende consistently defended the interests of the working class and attacked capitalism and imperialism, siding with the Cuban Revolution. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In 2011, Allende's body was exhumed, and a scientific autopsy confirmed he had died by suicide. Salvador Allende Gossens was born in 1908 and died in the coup against his government on 11 September 1973. Henry the Navigator, a 15th century Portuguese prince, helped usher in both the Age of Discovery and the Atlantic slave trade. His slight plurality in the election resulted in his confirmation as president by the National Congress of Chile. In the legislative elections on 16 December 2001, as part of the C… Salvador Allende was a politician who co-founded Chile's Socialist Party and ran for the Chilean presidency several times before winning the 1970 election. He had the support of the Socialist Party, many of whose militants supported Carlos Ibáñez and the Communist Party, which was illegal and acted clandestinely. Salvador Allende. He had the support of the Socialist Party, many … UP also initially included the moderate Party of the Radical Left, but in 1972 it joined the opposition (inside the Confederation of Democracy). This solidified opposition from U.S. President Richard Nixon's administration, which increased support to Allende's political opponents and led efforts to cut off international lines of credit to Chile. Salvador Allende was born July 26, 1908, in Valparaiso. Having failed over the years to kill the leadership and destroy the gains of the Bolivarian Revolution, the United States is now desperately turning to rogues in the army to do their dirty job. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Following a military coup led by General Augusto Pinochet, Allende took his own life on September 11, 1973. Allende retained the support of many workers and peasants; his electoral coalition won 44 percent of the vote in the March 1973 congressional elections. She writes about the events and anecdotes of the president’s inner circle, but also about her years of exile and the Resistance Committee that she formed with Tati Allende in Cuba. https://www.biography.com/political-figure/salvador-allende. Salvador Allende was a Chilean President and Socialist leader. His … He was elected to Congress as a Deputy in 1937, but his rise to political prominence came with his appoint… While in the service of Spain, the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan led the first European voyage of discovery to circumnavigate the globe. Its historic leader was President of Chile Salvador Allende, who was deposed in a coup d'état by General Pinochet in 1973. In 2014, a new party in Chile called Revolución Democrática inaugurated its central office. Salvador Allende became Chile's first socialist president in 1970 before committing suicide during a 1973 military coup. The UP coalition included the Communist Party (CP) and the Socialist Party. The president's inability to control his own radical left wing brought further hostility from the middle class, though he remained popular among workers and peasants. On September 11, 1973, General Augusto Pinochet led a military coup d'état to overthrow Allende, who refused to surrender and barricaded himself in the presidential palace. Monument to Allende in Santiago, Chile. Allende was a reformist who believed in Keynesian economics. During the siege, a large number of civilians were killed or wounded and many were imprisoned. But the brutality of the new regime, headed by General Augusto Pinochet, didn’t stop with the coup. After election to the Chamber of … Popular Unity — a coalition including Allende’s own Socialist Party as well as the Communist and smaller leftist parties — envisioned Allende’s presidency as a preparatory stage. While popular with Chileans, Allende's social programs were undermined by both national conservative forces and the Nixon administration. The US-backed 1973 coup against Chile’s democratically elected socialist president Salvador Allende resulted in Allende’s death and the torture and murder of thousands of leftists throughout the country. Salvador Allende was a politician who co-founded Chile's Socialist Party and ran for the Chilean presidency several times before winning the 1970 election. Allende was arrested multiple times while he was a student at the University of Chile for protesting against the government. The quote chosen for this mural was from a speech by the iconic Chilean president Salvador Allende: “Since my youth I have fought against prejudice and obsolete political systems. As part of a criminal investigation into alleged murders committed by Pinochet’s regime, Allende’s body was again exhumed in May 2011, and a scientific autopsy was performed. Redistribute incomes, he married Hortensia Bussi, with whom he had three daughters, Paz. 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